Although the research works and studies differ in their form and kind, they all still meet on the common ground of scientific methods employed by them. Hence, scientific research is expected to satisfy the following criteria:
i. The aim of the research should be clearly mentioned, along with the use of common concepts.
ii. The procedures used in the research should be adequately described, in order to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, while maintaining the continuity of what has already been done.
iii. The researchs procedural design should be carefully planned to obtain results that are as objective as possible.
iv. The flaws in the procedural design should be sincerely reported by the researcher to correctly estimate their effects upon the findings.
v. The data analysis should be adequate to reveal its significance.
vi. The methods used during the analysis should be appropriate.
vii. The reliability and validity of the concerned data should be checked carefully.
viii. The conclusions are needed to be confined and limited to only those data, which are justified and adequately provided by the research.
ix. In case, the researcher is experienced and has a good reputation in the field of research, greater confidence in research is warranted.
In other words, we can state the qualities of a good research” as following:
1) Systematic - This states that the research is structured with some specified steps, which are to be followed in a specified sequence, according to the well defined set of rules. Systematic characteristic of the research does not actually rule out creative thinking, but it does discourage the use of guessing and intuition in order to arrive at conclusions.
2) Logical - This states that the research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning, and that the logical process of induction and deduction are essential while conducting a research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a part to the whole; while, deduction is the process of reasoning from some premise to a conclusion that follows from that very premise. Besides, logical reasoning enables the research to be more meaningful in the context of decision making.
3) Empirical - This states that the research is basically related to one or more aspects of a real situation. Moreover, it deals with the concrete data, which provides a base for the external validity of research results.
4) Replicable - This states that the research results should be allowed verification by replicating their study, to thus build a sound basis for decisions.