Pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an immune-mediated, rare ulcerative disease of the skin. In general it occurs in a genetically susceptible individual. Its incidence ranges from 0.3-1.0/100,000 population. Female are affected more than males.

The cause of PG is not clear but it is attributed that the aberrant chemotaxis of neutrophil to the site of trauma causes development of  primary lesion.

The primary lesions   are usually small tender papule, pustule, folliculitis or nodule, which breakdown rapidly and progress to a large painful ulcer. The PG ulcer is characterized by violaceous undermined edges, and necrotic  floor covered with purulent exudate and associated disproportionate pain. Rarely it may be non-tender. The ulcers last for months to years. The PG has the fluctuating course and it may deveop pathergy and lead to rapid enlargement of the disease.

There is no definite investigations to diagnose PG. To date, diagnosis of PG is by exclusion of other causes of ulcers, associated systemic diseases, correlation of histology with clinical feature or rapid response to high dose corticosteroid.

Treatment with Corticosteroid is satisfactory; cytotoxic drugs are rarely added for treatment of PG. The lesions usually heal with cribriform scar. Recurrence of this disease may occur.

The patient with diagnosis of PG are advised to avoid surgical procedure for the fear of recurrence through pathergy, but when surgery is required, the surgery should  be carried out  under the supersvion of Dermatologist for atleast 2-3 weeks after surgery to prevent pathergy.


Works Cited Page in MLA Style

MLA-style formatted research or academic papers should have a ‘Works Cited’ page. This works cited page in MLA style should begin as a separate page at the last part of the paper. The present article on ‘Works Cited Page in MLA Style’ presents useful tips to help you learn the modes by which you can format the works cited page in MLA style.

Some of the most basic formatting features of the Works Cited page are discussed below.

Tips for Formatting Works Cited Page in MLA Style

General rules

  • Keep 2.5 cm margins. Insert the last name and page number in the header as in the rest of the paper.
  • Entitle the section as ‘Works Cited’. The title should be centre aligned on the first line of the page.
  • The title should be typed in a standard font and size. It should not be underlined, put in quotation marks or italics.
  • Ensure to double-space the whole manuscript. Avoid inserting extra lines in-between the entries.
  • Ensure to capitalise every word in the titles of the texts, excluding articles, prepositions and conjunctions.
  • Ensure to list all entries in the alphabetical order.
  • For the titles of autonomously published works, like books or journals, use italics or underlining.
  • For the titles of manuscripts published as part of collections, like poems, articles, etc., use quotation marks.
  • Ensure to use a hanging indent for each new entry.

General Entries in a Works Cited Page in MLA Style

  • Book with a Single Author:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Year.

  • Book with More than One Author:

First Author’s Last Name, First Name, and Second Author’s First Name Last Name. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Year.

  • Journal Article:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal. Volume Number.Issue Number (Date): Page numbers.

  • Work in Anthology or Collected Works:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Work. Ed. First Name Last Name. City: Publisher, Year. Page numbers.

  • Entire Anthology or Collected Works:

Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Year.

  • Article with No Author:

“Entry Name.” Title of Work. Edition. Year.

  • On-line Sources:

Author’s name. “Title of Document.” Data about the printed version of the publication. Data about the electronic version of the publication. Last Accessed Date.

  • Text from On-line Academic Journal:

Last Name, First Name. “Article’s Name.” Data about the print version of the publication. Data about the electronic version of the publication. Last Accessed Date and Page URL.

  • Article from On-line Encyclopaedia:

Last Name, First Name. “Article’s Name.” Data about the electronic version of the publication. Last Accessed Date and Page URL.

  • Full Internet Site:

Title of Site. Name of Editor of Site. Electronic Data. Last Accessed Date and Page URL.

  • Complete On-line Book:

Author’s Name. Title of Work. Name of editor, compiler or translator. Electronic Publication Data. Last Accessed Date and Page URL.

The above mentioned formatting styles are the most basic styles used for formatting the Works Cited page in MLA Style. By following these basic tips you can learn and get familiar with the proper and correct formatting style of the ‘Works Cited’ page.


MLA Style Formatting

In every field of research, there is a need to borrow facts or figures from other scholarly studies. Based on the requirement, the conventions used in various papers may vary. The MLA style follows a set of guidelines set by the Modern Language Association. This style is widely used in the field of humanities, especially in English, philosophy, foreign languages, and religious studies. High school and college writing assignments mostly follow this standardized writing style. Generally, MLA style of formatting is considered to be simpler and more concise compared to other styles.

Basic Guidelines for MLA Style of Formatting

  • The standard 8.5 x 11-inch paper should be always used.
  • Set a margin of 1-inch on all sides of the document.
  • Give an indent of half inch/5 spaces (or you can give a tab) for the first line of each paragraph. Do not give extra space between the paragraphs.
  • The entire text should be double-spaced.
  • Use a clear font, such as Times New Roman and the point size should be 10-12 point.
  • All the pages should be numbered (in some cases, there might be specific instructions not to number the first page). Place the page numbers on the top right-hand corner of the page and align them flush right. Your last name must precede the page number.
  • The title should be centered. Do not give extra space above or below the title of your paper.
  • You need not set a separate title page unless specified.
  • Do not use boldface in an MLA paper unless specified.
  • In case of a quoted sentence, punctuation (a period or comma) should be placed inside the quotation marks.
  • Endnotes, if any, should be set on a separate page just before the ‘Works Cited’ page.

These basic guidelines are provided just to give you an outline idea about the structure of the MLA style of formatting. For further details, you can refer to the MLA Handbook and the MLA Style Manual.


Guidelines for Writing Scientific Article

Good design and simple writing style of a scientific article are very important for getting the work published in a scientific journal. Nowadays, all are busy in their work; they need something that is easy to read and understand quickly. Therefore, it is effective to write a scientific article in a clear and simple way, with as much information as can be provided in a straight-forward and concise style. Following are described the guidelines for writing scientific article in an effective manner.

Effective Guidelines for Writing Scientific Article

Writing the Abstract

  • Abstract is the brief report of the whole article. It should highlight the major and important points covered in the article.
  • Writing the abstract includes summarizing the whole article while providing as much information as possible.
  • Identify the chief objectives, results, discussions and conclusions, and gather them in a single paragraph.
  • Exclude background information, literature review, account of methods, and extra words and phrases.
  • Re-read and revise the abstract to ensure that it conveys only the vital information.

Developing the Outline

  • The idea of an outline is to separate and arrange the topics and arguments of the whole article into smaller tasks in a logical form before writing the final article.
  • Prepare a fundamental message of the article by summarising the paper in one sentence (20-25 words).
  • Describe the sampling method employed and the materials and methods used to conduct the study.
  • Identify the major results and findings. List them in note form.
  • Define the chief conclusions and implications arising from the study.
  • Identify the limitations of the study results. What changes in practice, approaches or techniques would you recommend.
  • List every key point separately. Organize them chronologically by order of importance. Organising method should be plain and coherent.
  • Identify the references pertaining to each and every key point.
  • Prepare the introduction by reading the notes made in the outline. Introduction should begin with the main message, describing the purpose/objective of the study, how the study was conducted, what were the results and their implications.

Preparing the First Draft of Article

  • Combine all the information, i.e., data, references, tables, figures, etc.
  • Decide the journal to which you plan to submit the article. Write and format the article according to the targeted journal.
  • While writing the first draft, include all the chief points and information. Ignore the incomplete sentences and incorrect grammar at this stage.
  • Express yourself clearly through your writing by writing what you understand and how you understand it.
  • Use the headings from the prepared outline. Attempt to write the article in parts. Treat each section as a short article.
  • Take a break from the work. Read the prepared first draft with a fresh approach and viewpoint.
  • Edit or modify or delete, but be prepared to revise the article several times to make the final draft.
  • Wherever possible and applicable, use short sentences, simple and clear words and phrases, small paragraphs denoting single idea.
  • Proofread for clarity and readability. Re-read sentences and paragraphs for lucidity. For a scientific article, paragraphs of about 150 words in length are considered most favorable.
  • Ensure consistency and regularity. An article with more than one author often shares the writing procedures. However, the writing style should be consistent and regular.

The above mentioned guidelines for writing scientific article provide the most basic and common guidelines used while writing any scientific article. By following these guidelines for writing scientific article, one can learn and know how to write scientific articles in an effective and attractive manner.


Formatting Research Paper in APA Style

APA style of formatting is one of the most widely used styles used to format research and thesis papers. In order to format research paper in APA style, one must essentially learn and get acquainted with the basic guidelines of APA formatting and style guide. As such, the fundamental guidelines for formatting research paper in APA style have been provided in details below.

Guidelines for Formatting Research Paper in APA Style

Document Setting

  • Page Margins: 1 inch margins on all sides.
  • Fonts: Preferably, 12 point, Times New Roman or Courier for text and Arial for figures.
  • Spacing: Text to be double-spaced throughout the paper.
  • Text Alignment: Text should be left aligned, with a ragged right margin. Do not hyphenate words.
  • Paragraph Indentation: First line of every paragraph should be indented.
  • Page Numbers: Starting with the title page, each page should be numbered.

Major Sections

While formatting research paper in APA style, the sections should be arranged in proper order: Title page, Abstract, Main Body, References, Appendixes, Tables, Figure Captions, Figures.

However, the major sections include: Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, References.

Running Head

Running head is a short version of the paper’s full title, which is helpful for readers to spot the titles for published articles. Running head’s title should be in CAPITAL letters and within 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation). The running head should be present in each page, with the title “Running head” mentioned only on the title page, and not in the rest of the paper. The title should be left aligned, and page numbers right aligned.

Title Page

Title page should be the first page of manuscript, enlisting the title of the paper, author’s name and institutional affiliation, without mentioning titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD). APA formatting suggests that the title should be centre aligned and positioned in the upper half of the page. Besides, it should be limited to 12 words in length, without any abbreviations or trivial words, and should not be bolded, underlined, or italicised.

Author note

Author’s note provides the general information about the authors involved in the research. It includes the author’s departmental and institutional affiliation, changes in affiliation (if any), acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances and contact information, like postal address or e-mail.

Abstract and Keywords

Abstract should present a very clear and concise summary of the whole research paper. It helps the readers to swiftly assess the main idea and purpose of the research. Abstract should be limited to 150-250 words, with all acronyms and abbreviations defined properly.

A list of selected keywords should be provided in the abstract section, helping researchers to find your work in databases. The title “Keywords” should be italicised, and the sentence should be indented like the rest of the paper.

Section Heading

  • 1st level heading: Centre aligned, bold, and upper and lower case.
  • 2nd level heading: Left aligned, bold, and upper and lower case.
  • 3rd level heading: Indented 0.5” from the left margin, bold, and lower case (first word excluded).


References provide the information needed to find any cited source. All in-text citations should be provided in the reference list. Reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, or the first word in citation. All names should be cited for less than six authors, while for six or more authors, the first author’s name is followed by “et al.”. In-text citations (direct quotes) should mention author(s)’s name, publication year, and page number(s).

Tables and Figures

Each table should start on a new page. The table title and caption should be left aligned, while only the table caption should be italicised.

Figures captions should be provided separately on a new page. The figure label should be italicised and not the figure caption. Each figure should start on a new page, provided at the end of the paper.


Appendices are short contents that complement the research paper, but are not directly related to the text. Usually, appendices are mentioned in the body of the paper. In case of more than one appendix, use a capital letter, like Appendix A, Appendix B, etc., to identify them separately.

Above mentioned guidelines will help you to learn and get familiar with formatting research paper in APA style. However, it would be suggested to seek guidance from your instructor for his final word on the format and style needed to format the assigned paper.


Scale Classification Bases

Scale Classification Bases

The Scale Classification Bases can be categorized on the following bases.

  1. Subject orientation: In this, a scale is designed to measure the characteristics of the respondent who completes it or to estimate the stimulus object that is presented to the respondent.
  2. Response form: In this, the scales can be classified as categorical or comparative. Categorical scales (rating scales) are used when a respondent scores some object without direct reference to other objects. Comparative scales (ranking scales) are used when the respondent is asked to compare two or more objects.
  3. Degree of subjectivity: In this, the scale data is based on whether we measure subjective personal preferences or just make non-preference judgements. In the former case, the respondent is asked to select which person or solution he favors to be employed, whereas in the latter case he is simply asked to judge which person or solution will be more effective without reflecting any personal preference.
  4.  Scale properties: In this, the scales can be classified as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Nominal scales merely classify without indicating order, distance or unique origin. Ordinal scales indicate magnitude relationships of ‘more than’ or ‘less than’, but indicate no distance or unique origin. Interval scales have both order and distance values, but no unique origin. Whereas, ratio scales possess all these features.
  5. Number of dimensions: In this, the scales are classified as ‘uni-dimensional’ or ‘multi-dimensional’. In the former, only one attribute of the respondent or object is measured, whereas multi-dimensional scaling recognizes that an object might be described better by using the concept of an attribute space of ‘n’ dimensions, rather than a single-dimension continuum.
  6. Scale construction techniques: This can be developed by the following five techniques.
  • Arbitrary approach: In this, the scales are developed on ad hoc basis. It is the most widely used approach.
  • Consensus approach: In this, a panel of judges evaluates the items chosen for inclusion in the instrument regarding whether they are relevant to the topic area and unambiguous in implication.
  • Item analysis approach: In this, a number of individual items are developed into a test that is given to a group of respondents. Post administering the test, total scores are evaluated, and the individual items are analyzed to determine which items discriminate between persons or objects with high and low total scores.
  • Cumulative scales: These are chosen on the basis of their conforming to some ranking of items with ascending and descending discriminating power.
  • Factor scales: This can be constructed on the basis of inter-correlations of items indicating a common factor accounts for the relationship between items.



Scaling techniques for researcher

Scaling techniques for researcher

During research especially when the concepts we want to measure are complex and abstract and there are no standardized measurement tools available, we face problems of measurement. Alternatively, when we are measuring something which can lead to subject bias like attitudes and opinions, there is a problem of their valid measurement. A similar problem may be faced in a lesser degree while measuring physical or institutional concepts. Therefore, knowledge of some such procedures which may enable accurate measurement of abstract concepts is extremely essential.

Scaling techniques are immensely beneficial for a researcher.

Scaling is the process of assigning numbers to various degrees of attitudes, preferences, opinion, and other concepts. Scaling is defined as a procedure for the assignment of numbers (or other symbols) to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question.

Scaling can be done in two ways: (i) making a judgement about an individuals characteristics and then placing him on a scale which is defined in terms of that characteristic, and (ii) constructing questionnaires where individual’s responses score assign them a place on a scale. A scale is a continuum, consisting of the highest point and the lowest point along with several intermediate points between these two extremities. These scale-point positions are hierarchically related to each other. Numbers for measuring the degree of differences in the attitudes or opinions are assigned to individuals corresponding to their positions in a scale. Therefore, the term ‘scaling’ implies procedures for determination of quantitative measures of subjective abstract concepts.


Technique of Developing Measurement Tools

Technique of Developing Measurement Tools:

a)  Concept development: This is the first step. In this case, the researcher should have a complete understanding of all the important concepts relevant to his study. This step is more applicable to theoretical studies compared to practical studies where the basic concepts are already established beforehand.

b)  Specification of concept dimensions: Here, the researcher is required to specify the dimensions of the concepts, which were developed in the first stage. This is achieved either by adopting an intuitive approach or by an empirical correlation of the individual dimensions with that concept and/or other concepts.

c)  Indicator selection: In this step, the researcher has to develop the indicators that help in measuring the elements of the concept. These indicators include questionnaires, scales, and other devices, which help to measure the respondents opinion, mindset, knowledge, etc. Using more than one indicator lands stability and improves the validity of the scores.

Index formation: Here, the researcher combines the different indicators into an index. In case, there are several dimensions of a concept the researcher needs to combine them.


Test of Practicality of a measuring instrument

Test of Practicality of a measuring instrument

The practicality attribute of a measuring instrument can be estimated regarding its economy, convenience and interpretability. From the operational point of view, the measuring instrument needs to be practical. In other words, it should be economical, convenient and interpreted.

Economy consideration suggests that some mutual benefit is required between the ideal research project and that which the budget can afford. The length of measuring instrument is an important area where economic pressures are swiftly felt. Even though more items give better reliability, in the interest of limiting the interview or observation time, we have to take only few items for the study purpose. Similarly, the data-collection methods, which are to be used, occasionally depend upon economic factors.

Convenience test suggests that the measuring instrument should be easily manageable. For this purpose, one should pay proper attention to the layout of the measuring instrument. For example, a questionnaire with clear instructions and illustrated examples is comparatively more effective and easier to complete than the questionnaire that lacks these features. Interpretability consideration is especially important when persons other than the designers of the test are to interpret the results. In order to be interpretable, the measuring instrument must be supplemented by the following:

  1. detailed instructions for administering the test,
  2. scoring keys,
  3. evidence about the reliability, and
  4. guides for using the test and interpreting results.

Test of Reliability

Reliability is an essential element of test quality. An instrument for measurement is reliable if it provides consistent results. But a reliable instrument need not be valid. For example, if a clock shows time nonstop then it is reliable, but that does not mean it is showing the correct time. Reliability deals with consistency, or reproducibility of similar results in a test by the test subject, if a test is administered on two occasions; the same conclusions are reached both times. While a test with poor reliability will have remarkably different scores each time with the same test and same examinee.

If a test is then it has to be reliable, but the vice versa is not true. Although, reliability might is not as valuable as validity, but nonetheless reliability it is easier to assess than validity for a test. Reliability has two key aspects: stability and equivalence. The degree of stability can be located comparing the results of repeated measurements with the same candidate and the same instrument. Equivalence means the probability of the amount of errors getting introduced by various investigators or different sample items being studied during the repetition of the test. The best way to test for reliability of a test is that two investigators should compare their observations of the same events. Reliability can be improved in the following ways:

(i) By standardizing the measurement conditions to reduce external factors such as boredom, fatigue, etc. which leads to achievement of stability.

(ii) By detailed directions for measurement which can be generalized and used by trained and motivated persons to conduct research and also by increasing the purview of the sample of items used, this lead to equivalence.