Steps for Sample Design

The researcher must keep in mind the following points while preparing a sample design.

(i) Universe: While preparing a sample design, it is foremost required to define the set of objects to be studied.

Technically, it is also known as the Universe, which can be finite or infinite. In case of a finite universe, the number of items is limited. Whereas, in an infinite universe the number of items is limitless.

(ii) Sampling unit: It is necessary to decide a sampling unit before selecting a sample. It can be a geographical one (state, district, village, etc.), a construction unit (house, flat, etc.), a social unit (family, club, school, etc.), or an individual.

(iii) Source list: In other words, it is called the ‘sampling frame’ from which the sample is drawn. It comprises the names of all items of a universe (finite universe only). If source list/sampling frame is unavailable, the researcher has to prepare it by himself.

(iv) Sample size: This is the number of items, selected from the universe, constituting a sample. The sample size should not be too large or too small, but optimum. In other words, an optimum sample accomplishes the requirements of efficiency, representativeness, reliability and flexibility.

(v) Parameters of interest: While determining a sample design, it is required to consider the question of the specific population parameters of interest. For example, we may like to estimate the proportion of persons with some specific attributes in the population, or we may also like to know some average or other measure concerning the population.

(vi) Budgetary constraint: Practically, cost considerations have a major impact upon the decisions concerning not only the sample size but also the sample type. In fact, this can even lead to the use of a non-probability sample.

(vii) Sampling procedure: The researcher, at last, decides the techniques to be used in selecting the items for the sample. In fact, this technique/procedure stands for the sample design itself. Apparently, such a design should be selected, which for a provided sample size and cost, has a smaller sampling error.